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Patient stories: two children diagnosed with aadc deficiency

Following are 2 examples of children and their journeys leading to a diagnosis of AADC Deficiency.a

Of course, every child is different, so each child’s journey can be different.

Choose a child to read about:

Meet “Anna,” a baby girl with muscle spasms and delays in development

Anna had difficulty eating as a newborn

  • Anna was a newborn when her parents first noticed that she had problems eating. Her difficulty with breastfeeding led to bottle feeding, with high-flow nipples for her bottles to ensure she was getting enough nutrition
  • Anna coughed and turned red as if she was having trouble breathing while taking the bottle

Anna could not do what other babies her age could do

  • As Anna grew, her parents noticed other problems. For example, at around 9 months old, she couldn’t hold her head up, and didn’t roll over
  • Anna also drooled constantly and often had a runny nose

Anna started to have episodes where her eyes would move involuntarily

  • Anna’s eyes would suddenly swing upward and would stay there for several minutes and sometimes much longer
  • During these attacks, called “oculogyric crises,” Anna would seem frozen or zoned out
  • These attacks seemed similar to seizures, so Anna’s parents spoke with her doctor about it, who ran tests and ruled out seizure disorders

Anna was referred to a pediatric neurologist

  • Anna’s pediatric neurologist ordered routine blood work. The results came back normal
  • The doctor then ordered an MRI, which was also normal

Anna underwent special testing of her CSF

  • This test was done by collecting some of Anna’s spinal fluid using a procedure called a lumbar puncture
  • This test measured the level of certain natural chemicals in the fluid surrounding Anna’s brain
The results of the CSF analysis showed that Anna had AADC Deficiencyb

Introducing “James,” a teenage boy with unexplained muscle spasms

James had trouble feeding and eating

  • As a newborn, James had trouble eating. His parents cut a hole in the nipples of his bottles to help him feed

James had difficulties that other children his age did not

  • James took a long time to fall asleep, and would wake up multiple times during the night
  • James was very sensitive to temperature, and would sometimes sweat even if it wasn’t warm
  • Throughout his childhood, James never met the typical milestones that most children meet. He couldn’t hold his head up, sit, crawl, stand, or walk without help, and he was never able to speak

James could not always control his movements

  • Sometimes, James would make random motions and his arms and legs would twist uncontrollably
  • James’ parents thought these spells looked like seizures

James was diagnosed with cerebral palsy and given medication, but his symptoms did not improve

  • At 6 months old, James was diagnosed with cerebral palsy
  • James received some medications for his abnormal movements, but they made his symptoms worse

James’ parents took him to other doctors for more testing

  • James’ doctors ordered imaging tests for his brain, which were normal
  • The doctor also ordered common blood and urine tests to assess James’ organs and metabolism, and these tests came back normal

At 17 years old, James’ parents decided to take him to another pediatric neurologist who ordered a CSF analysis

  • For this test, some of James’ spinal fluid was collected in a procedure called a lumbar puncture, or a spinal tap
The results of the CSF analysis helped his doctors reach a diagnosis of AADC Deficiencyb
  1. Not a real patient. Hypothetical profile based on actual patient experiences.
  2. Consensus guidelines recommend confirming an AADC Deficiency diagnosis with a genetic test.

CSF=cerebrospinal fluid; MRI=magnetic resonance imaging.

Learn more about the tests that these childrens’ doctors ordered

If these symptoms sound familiar, you may want to discuss them with your child’s doctor

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Understand why AADC Deficiency is often misdiagnosed as other conditions